There are three major encryption techniques used by SSH

Symmetrical encryption: This encryption works on the principle of the generation of a single key for encrypting as well as decrypting the data. The secret key generated is distributed among the clients and the hosts for a secure connection. Symmetrical encryption is the most basic encryption and performs best when data is encrypted and decrypted on a single machine.
Asymmetrical encryption: This encryption is more secure because it generates two different keys: Public and Private key. A public key is distributed to different host machines while the private key is kept securely on the client machine. A secure connection is established using this public-private key pair.
Hashing: One-way hashing is an authentication technique which ensures that the received data is unaltered and comes from a genuine sender. A hash function is used to generate a hash code from the data. It is impossible to regenerate the data from the hash value. The hash value is calculated at the sender as well as the receiver's end. If the hash values match, the data is authentic.

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